Electrically Small Antenna Elements Using Negative Permittivity Resonators

The study of electrically small radiofrequency (RF) antenna elements is of both practical and fundamental importance. From a practical standpoint, emerging applications such multi-input multi-output (MIMO) mobile communications systems and RF-tagging benefit from the ability to make antenna size smaller. In this paper, we consider the use of materials with negative electric permittivity as a building block for constructing effective small antenna elements. Although such materials do not occur naturally at microwave frequencies, negative permittivity can be realized at microwave frequencies using plasmas of the appropriate charge density.

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